«BIM - WE BUILD YOUR BUSINESS!»
BAKIROV A.M.

Construction of a rubble-sand base

       

OOO BIM-Betonstroy performs works related to construction of rubble-sand bases.

 Concrete floor can be made both on the rubble-sand base and on the existing carrier concrete plate. When laying the concrete floor on the earth foundation (soil carrying the load from the floor) the ground excavation and removal and construction of a rubble-sand base are provided. Peat, humus, and other vegetable and loose soil are removed.

 In their place, by layers, the rubble-sand base is laid with compacting of each layer. Works are carried out in accordance with the requirements of SNIP. The permissible deviation of flatness of the resulting rubble-sand base should not exceed 20 mm when checking with optical level. The thickness of rubble-sand base is usually in the range from 0.2 to 1 meter. When flooring over an existing concrete base the changes in elevation over 10% of the slab thickness cannot be allowed. If the elevation difference is higher than these figures, the leveling screed is provided.

 Evenness and performance of the industrial floors are directly dependent on the quality of the base preparation. The compacting factor of the construction base shall be at least 0.95. Accordingly, OOO BIM-Betonstroy performs the work on preparation of the rubble-sand base, controls the whole complex of works on the concrete slab installation. This ensures the highest quality of finished industrial floors.

 

Concrete floors and screed

       

One of the key structural elements of the industrial building is floors. They bear the basic operational load such as mechanical effects, influence of aggressive fluids, temperature changes. Due to the fact that most of the companies work in hard operating conditions, the requirements for industrial floors are strict. Among them there is wear resistance, high strength, resistance to chemicals, durability. Concrete floors comply with these requirements best of all.

Benefits:

As well as decades ago, concrete floors are still the best option among industrial coatings in terms of the price/quality ratio. The key preferences of this technology are:

  • flexibility - implementation of concrete floors with account of the specific process requirements;
  • excellent performance - high heat resistance up to 1,200°C, resistance to abrasion and mechanical stress;
  •  relatively low cost of concrete floors and their laying;
  •  maintainability;
  •  high speed of installation.

Field of application

 Due to excellent technical characteristics, industrial concrete floors are applied in various sectors, the most common being:

  •  warehouse facilities;
  •  car parking;
  •  commercial and freight terminals;
  •  shopping centers and exhibition centers;
  •  factories and industrial sites.

 Whatever your application, concrete floors can serve as a base for different surface finishes, including on the basis of polymer compositions.

 

Constructive types of reinforcing 

           

Reinforcing rods

That is the most traditional method of reinforcement for floors and, as a rule, the most expensive one. Reinforcement can be both bound and welded. For concrete floors two layers are used. They are bottom and top layers. The bottom layer is mounted on plastic stands, and the top one is laid on stands made of reinforcement rods. The protective layer is 20-30 mm. The process of fabrication of such floor is shown in the figure.

 

 

 

  1. reinforcement
  2. steel rod
  3. hardening coating
  4. concrete
  5. waterproofing: Polyethylene film
  6. «lean concrete» or rubble

Steel fiber reinforcement – steel fiber concrete

That is the most modern type of floor. It allows to reduce significantly the cost and duration of the flooring. A well-prepared base is required. The process of fabrication of such floor is shown in the figure.

 

 

 


  1. steel rod
  2. hardening coating
  3. steel fiber concrete
  4. waterproofing: Polyethylene film
  5. «lean concrete» or rubble

Hybrid reinforcement

To reduce the cost of reinforcement when the bottom layer of reinforcement shall withstand the deflection load and the top layer can be filled with fiber the hybrid reinforcement is applied. Also such reinforcement is used when steel fiber concrete is able to be applied, but there is a fear in homogeneity of the base. The bottom layer of reinforcement and steel fiber are additionally used as a three-dimensional reinforcement. This is supported by calculations and resolution to use in the project. The process of fabrication of such floor is shown in the figure.

 

 

 

  1. reinforcement
  2. steel rod
  3. hardening coating
  4. steel fiber concrete
  5. waterproofing: Polyethylene film
  6. «lean concrete» or rubble

Reinforcement of floor with metal fibers is a technically simple and very cost-effective operation, which contributes to improvement of the performance of the concrete structure and its strengthening.

Construction of waterproofing:

  •  introducing the hardening mixture to the surface of fresh concrete when the concrete has hardened enough to withstand the weight of a person and concrete finishing machine (at approximately 20 ° C - after about 3-6 hours after laying the concrete);
  • the first troweling of the hardening grout mixture (after the mixture absorbs the moisture from the concrete slab, and the surface darkens the first troweling is performed with a disk);
  • the second introduction of the dry hardening mixture (after the first troweling);
  • troweling and multiple smoothing of the surface with the blades using the trowel up to a mirror finish;
  • applying specific chemical composition to the surface that penetrates into the surface, creating the necessary conditions for the care of the concrete during curing;
  • cutting the contraction and expansion joints, sealant filling of joints and use of hardening mixtures allow us to get a robust durable concrete floor after one pouring and in 10 days ,when the concrete attains 70% of the strength, to begin using this floor;
  • then, the joints are filled with a special packing cord and sealant.

 Fiber-reinforced concrete floors

Fiber-reinforced concrete is a material which is so different from ordinary concrete in their properties that it can be seen not as a subspecies of concrete but as a new original material. It is much superior to traditional concrete in almost all parameters:

• much higher impact and fatigue strength, wear resistance is doubled;

• higher tensile and shear strength, fracture toughness and water resistance;

steel fiber concrete is 10 times more viscous than conventional concrete;

• several times higher resistance to temperature differences and fiber concrete has a high resistance to frost

Fiber-reinforced concrete: fields of application

The fiber is distributed throughout the fiber-reinforced concrete and ensures three-dimensional hardening, unlike steel reinforcement, which operates in only two dimensions. Therefore the fiber-reinforced concrete allows us to do without a part of the reinforcement structures and thus to reduce significantly the cost of reinforcing work and to reduce the consumption of steel and concrete. The processes of concrete mixing and its reinforcement are combined. In addition, the fiber-reinforced concrete is more durable and maintenance costs will also be reduced in the future.

Today the fiber-reinforced concrete is used:

  • for construction of storage facilities and bank safes;
  • for construction of bridges, dams and sluices;
  • for construction of nuclear power reactor compartments and containers for radioactive waste disposal;
  • for strengthening and repair of mines and tunnel arches;
  • for aircraft runways.

In civil engineering the fiber-reinforced concrete is mostly used to fill the floors. Due to advantages of the fiber-reinforced concrete the floors do not shrink during maturation and there are no cracks. The floors made of the fiber-reinforced concrete are less fragile, preserving and even increasing the strength over the years. Strength characteristics may be different, depending on the future operational loads. Moreover, fiber-reinforced concrete floors are very even. The floors can have a drop from 2 mm to 2 m that minimizes substantially the cost of decorating the industrial floors. Speed of mixture placement and adaptability often make the fiber-reinforced concrete floors irreplaceable in a variety of grounds.

We recommend use of fiber concrete for floors:

  • in manufacturing and industrial facilities;
  • in construction of storage space;
  • in garages and auto repair shops;
  • in sales rooms and exhibition centers;
  • on multi-level parking;
  • in hangars for aircraft and cargo terminals;
  • in office premises.

In addition, we offer improvement of the chemical resistance, decor, wear resistance and other physical and chemical properties of the coating. Fiber-reinforced concrete floors are hardened by the application of protective polymeric structures: impregnation, paints, liquid and highly filled coatings. Treatment of smooth surfaces with a hardening mixture is possible. For this purpose troweling with helicopters is provided.

 

Procedure of application of epoxy-polymeric coatings 

       

Polymer flooring has long proven to be a reliable, high-strength, wear-resistant, dust-free coverage for a variety of areas. They are widely used in food, medicine and chemical industry, automobile repair shops, warehouses, trading companies, and other industrial and public buildings. The polymer coating thickness is about 0.3 mm. In determining of its strength the strength, smoothness and absence of cracks in the base is very important. After all, these factors determine the performance of the industrial floor after painting.

 Benefits of polymer flooring:

  • industrial flooring surface after painting is completely dust-free;
  • moisture resistance;
  • resistance to mechanical stress and chemical attacks of a wide range of substances (gasoline, oil, sewage, etc.);
  • a wide range of colors and individual selection of color give them a lovely decorative quality;
  • ability to give the self-leveling floor a matt, glossy and pebbled effects;
  • hygienic and easy to clean plastic floor coverings;
  • excellent adhesion with various types of foundations;
  • Can be applied to any surface;
  • affordability, simplicity and adaptability in the application;
  • vapor permeability which allows to apply the painting floors to fresh or wet concrete.

Depending on the binder the polymer coating (floors) is divided into:

  • thin-layer;
  • self-leveling;
  • chemical resistant (acid-resistant);
  • antistatic;
  • magnesian;
  • colored quartz sand;
  • Polyurethane;
  • polymer-cement;
  • highly filled;

Mounting of the polymer self-leveling floors consists of the following processes:

  • preparation of the base;
  • treatment of joints and cracks;
  • application of primer (priming);
  • base layer;
  • topcoat;
  • cutting of joints.

Heavy duty polyurethane varnishes with a matt and gloss effect are used for extra protection against abrasion. For example, due to colored flocks, the industrial floor surface will look as consistent for a long time. Scratches on such cover are invisible, shine is provided permanently. Such varnishes protect the floor surface effectively as if ‘sealing’ it.

High-duty polyurethane cement coating

OOO BIM-Betonstroy works directly with leading companies in production of the polyurethane cement formulas, such as Sika and Basf. Therefore, we offer to its customer to use such materials as PurCem (Sika) and Ucrete (Basf) for strengthening the upper layer of concrete.

Purcem is a high-duty three-component polyurethane cement screed based on the modified polyurethane cement and aggregate that is suitable for use for flooring in areas of high wear load and chemical attack. Purcem forms a strong durable surface in areas of high stress and chemical exposure such as:

  • food production in dry and wet areas, areas of refrigeration, areas that are prone to thermal shock;
  • chemical plants;
  • laboratories;
  • workshops.

Benefits:

  • liquid consistency requires less effort when installing traditional screeds based on modified polyurethane;
  • excellent chemical resistance, and the product is resistant to a wide range of organic and inorganic acids, alkali, amines, salts and solvents;
  • a coefficient of thermal expansion is close to corresponding concrete factor that provides uniform thermal deformation of the base and covering in the normal temperature cycle;
  • the floor can be cleaned with superheated steam;
  • adhesive strength is higher than the concrete tensile strength, i.e. the concrete is destroyed first;
  • odorless;
  • without volatile organic compounds;
  • high mechanical strength;
  • high impact strength which provides the concrete deforms at impact, but it will not crack or loose contact;
  • protection from slipping through the textured surface;
  • high wear resistance due to the presence of the silicon filler;
  • quick application in one pass;
  • fast curing allowing the vehicles to travel ten hours after installation, as well as the complete loading after twelve hours;
  • without joints that eliminates extra expansion joints, it is enough to penetrate the existing joints of the concrete base;
  • easy to maintain.

Ucrete– a four-component chemical and thermo-resistant, colored polyurethane cement composition. It is used as the base layer in the chemical and food industry. Ucrete material is used on all types of mineral substrates. The most common types are: new or old concrete base, self-leveling cement mass and sand-cement screed. The use of this material without the primer composition is not acceptable.

Benefits:

  • Ucrete is resistant to wear and impact loads, corrosive chemicals (including concentrated acids), which allow us to use it in areas with moderate to significant operational loads, significant exposure to liquids;
  • TEC (thermal-expansion coefficient) of the material allows the coating to withstand temperature extremes, including sudden temperature shocks up to +13º C;
  • the low modulus of elasticity the material protects the base from impacts and destruction;
  • no unpleasant odor during application.

Concrete floors with hardened top layer

       

Concrete coatings are characterized by high strength, hardness and resistance to mechanical abrasion and wear. But due to the physicochemical properties of the concrete the top layer is prone to degradation and seediness, cracks and chips appear in the floor that eventually leads to destruction of the entire slab. To strengthen the top layer and protect the floor from damage the special mixture such as concrete hardener (topping) is used.

Concrete floors with the hardened top layer – comfort and value

Floor concrete hardener improves significantly the performance of concrete floors making them more wear- and thermal- resistant and increases greatly their service life. The installation of the floors does not take much time and requires virtually no additional investment.

Floors with hardened top layer are used in different facilities:

  • production and storage facilities;
  • car parks and garages;
  • hypermarkets, shopping and entertainment complexes;
  • aircraft hangars and cargo terminals. 

 Technology of floor mounting with a hardened top layer:

  • reinforcement and concrete placement;
  • hardening and compacting of floors - placement and compaction of concrete is provided with screeds or vibrator;
  • smoothing - Concrete troweling for a perfectly flat ground surface;
  • application of dry hardener to the concrete floor surface. Quantity of consumable material depends on the future operating conditions of the hardened floor and is 3-8 kg per 1 m2;
  • varnishing - if the mirror effect is required;
  • cutting of the expansion joints - special cuts of 3-5 mm width and 1/3 of the base thickness. They are intended to correct the possible deformations of concrete during curing. Subsequently, the expansion joints are filled with sealant or shrink cord;
  • sealer finish – treatment with special hardening material that creates a high-strength surface layer which improves the floors resistance to dirt and makes subsequent cleaning easier.